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 Manufacturer Tesla Motors Tesla Motors Code name: DarkStar 2008–2012 Roadster 2-door Roadster Rear Mid-engine, Rear-wheel drive Unique, developed from Lotus Elise 3-phase, 4-pole AC induction motor Single speed BorgWarner fixed gear 2,352 mm (92.6 in) 3,946 mm (155.4 in) 1,873 mm (73.7 in) 1,127 mm (44.4 in) 2,723 lb (1,235 kg) 53 kW·h (Li-ion battery) 244 mi (393 km) using EPA combined cycle Tesla Motors

The Tesla Roadster is an all-electric sports car produced by the electric car firm Tesla Motors. The Roadster is the only highway-capable electric automobile for sale as of early 2010; all other highway-capable EVs are prototypes or evaluation series from automakers that are trying to determine whether to go forward with an electric vehicle program.

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The Roadster is the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production EV to travel more than 200 miles (320 km) per charge. The world distance record of 501 km (311 mi) for a production electric car on a single charge was set by a Roadster on October 27, 2009 during the Global Green Challenge in outback Australia.

According to an independent analysis from the U.S. EPA, the Roadster can travel 244 miles (393 km) on a single charge of its lithium-ion battery pack, and can accelerate from 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 3.7 seconds. The Roadster's efficiency, as of September 2008 was reported as 120 mpgge (2.0 L/100 km). It uses 135 W·h/km (21.7 kW·h/100 mi or 490 kJ/km) battery-to-wheel, and has an efficiency of 92% on average.

In July 2009, Tesla announced that US consumers could finance the Roadster through Bank of America. Financing is available for up to 75 percent of the total vehicle purchase price. A customer approved for a 5-year financing term on a base Roadster could put down as little as $20,000 before taxes and net of the US federal tax credit. The monthly payment would be approximately$1,700 at a 5 percent annual percentage rate (APR). That monthly payment is typical for high performance, although the Roadster costs roughly $4 to refuel and does not require routine oil changes or exhaust system work. Unlike internal combustion engines, Teslas get a 100 percent waiver on sales, luxury and use taxes in at least four states, and they qualify for commuter lane privileges, free parking and free charging in many regions. Tesla sells Roadsters directly to customers. It sells online, in showrooms and over a toll-free phone line in North America and Europe. Tesla does not operate through franchise dealerships but operates company-owned stores. The company has said that it takes its retail cues from Apple, Starbucks and other non-automotive retailers. ### Outside the United States The company has been shipping cars to European customers since the summer of 2009. An EU special-edition vehicle is limited to a 2010 model-year production run of 250 cars, with a base price of €99,000. Tesla opened a showroom in London, its first outside the US, on June 25, 2009, and announced at the same time that it would start building right-hand-drive models from early 2010. Tesla opened a store in Munich in September 2009 and a store in Monaco in November 2009. Reservations for the 2010 Roadster are available for a 3,000 Euro refundable reservation fee. Tesla on display at the 2010 Canadian International Autoshow in Toronto On 3 March 2009, Tesla Motors announced it was taking reservations from Canadian customers. Service Rear view of the vehicle Electric vehicles require much less service and maintenance than internal combustion engine vehicles. They do not require routine oil changes. They do not have any tailpipe emissions and therefore do not require any muffler or exhaust system work. They do not require replacement spark plugs, pistons, hoses or belts. The conventional parts of the car—including the brakes, body work and any interior and HVAC work—can be performed by any qualified automotive technician, exotic car garage or other local provider. Tesla recommends that customers bring their car to a service center for an antifreeze change every five to seven years. For other concerns with Tesla's all-electric powertrain, Tesla has created a "mobile service unit" that dispatches company-trained technicians to customers' homes or offices in case the owner is experiencing problems. Technicians drive company vans equipped with numerous tools and testing equipment to do "in the field" repairs, enhancements and software upgrades. Tesla debuted its "house call" approach in the spring of 2009, when the company announced a recall due to a manufacturing problem in the Lotus assembly plant, which also affected the Lotus Elise and other models from the British sports car maker. The first Tesla Motors service center, in Los Angeles, California, was opened on Santa Monica Boulevard on May 1, 2008. Tesla Motors publicly opened their second showroom and service area in Menlo Park, California on July 22, 2008. The Menlo Park location is also the final assembly area for Tesla Roadsters. Tesla also operates service centers in New York City, Miami, Florida, Chicago, Illinois and Seattle, Washington. Tesla plans to build additional service centers over the next few years to support sales of its next vehicle, the Model S sports sedan. Planning is underway for an additional 15 service centers in United States major metropolitan locations. Possible locations for sales and service locations in Europe were announced in a letter to customers in May, 2008. ### Motor The roadster is powered by a 3-phase, 4-pole electric motor, producing a maximum net power of 248 hp (185 kW). Maximum torque is 200·ft-lbf (270 N·m), obtained at 0 rpm and almost constant up to 6,000 rpm, a common feature of electric motors and one of the biggest differences (from the performance point of view) with internal combustion engines. The motor is air-cooled and does not need a liquid cooling system. The Sport Model introduced during the 2009 Detroit Auto Show includes a motor with a higher density, hand-wound stator that produces a maximum of 288 hp (215 kW).[62] Both motors are designed for rotational speeds of up to 14,000 rpm, and the regular motor delivers an efficiency of typically 90%, or 80% at peak power. It weighs less than 70 pounds. ### Transmission Starting in September, 2008 Tesla Motors selected BorgWarner to manufacture gearboxes and began equipping all Roadsters with a single speed, fixed gear gearbox (8.2752:1) with an electrically-actuated parking lock mechanism and a mechanical lubrication pump. The company previously worked with several companies, including XTrac and Magna International, to find the right automatic transmission, but a two-gear solution proved to be too challenging. This led to substantial delays in production. At the "Town Hall Meeting" with owners in December, 2007, Tesla announced plans to ship the initial 2008 Roadsters with their interim Magna transmissions locked into second gear, limiting the performance of the car to less than what was originally stated (0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 5.7 seconds instead of the announced 4.0 seconds). Tesla also announced it would upgrade those transmissions under warranty when the final transmission became available. At the "Town Hall Meeting" with owners on January 30, 2008, Tesla Motors described the planned transmission upgrade as a single-speed gearbox with a drive ratio of 8.27:1 combined with improved electronics and motor cooling that retain the acceleration from 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in under 4 seconds and an improved motor limit of 14,000 rpm to retain the 125 mph (201 km/h) top speed. The upgraded system also improved the maximum torque from 200–280 ft·lbf (270–380 N·m) and improves the Roadster's quarter mile times. ### Performance The Roadster's 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) acceleration time is 3.9 seconds for the Standard Model and 3.7 seconds for the 2010 Sport Model. MotorTrend, which performed the first independent instrumented testing of the Roadster Sport, confirmed the company's reported 0-60 mph time of 3.7 seconds (MotorTrend recorded 0-60 mph of 3.70 seconds; it recorded a quarter-mile test at 12.6 sec @ 102.6 mph). The top speed is electronically limited to 125 mph (201 km/h). The Roadster covers the quarter-mile drag strip in 12.757 seconds at 104.74 mph (168.56 km/h). It weighs about 2,700 lb (1,200 kg) and is rear wheel drive; most of the car's weight is centered in front of the rear axle. Its body style and smooth underbody result in a Cd of 0.35. Tesla began delivering the higher performance Sport version of the Roadster in July 2009. The Roadster Sport has adjustable dampers and a new hand-wound motor, capable of 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 3.7 seconds. Scotty Pollacheck, a high-performance driver for Killacycle, drove a 2010 Tesla Roadster Sport at the Wayland Invitational Drag Race in Portland, Ore., in July 2009. He did a quarter-mile (~400 m) in dry conditions in 12.643 seconds, setting a new record in the National Electric Drag Racing Association among the SP/A3 class of vehicles. The EPA combined range (specifying distance traveled between charges) measured in February 2008 for early production Roadsters was 231 mi (372 km) city, 224 mi (360 km) highway, and 227 mi (365 km) combined (city/highway). In August 2008, additional testing with the newer Powertrain 1.5 resulted in an EPA combined range of 244 mi (393 km). The vehicle set a new distance record when it completed the 241-mile (388 km) Rallye Monte Carlo d'Energies Alternatives with 36 miles (58 km) left on the charge. Simon Hackett and Emilis Prelgauskas broke the distance record for an electric vehicle, driving 501 km (311 miles) from Alice Springs to Marla, South Australia, in Simon's Tesla Roadster. ### Battery system Hooked up power supply. Tesla Motors refers to the Roadster's battery pack as the Energy Storage System or ESS. The ESS contains 6,831 lithium ion cells arranged into 11 "sheets" connected in series; each sheet contains 9 "bricks" connected in series; each "brick" contains 69 cells connected in parallel (11S 9S 69P). The cells are 18 mm (0.71 in) in diameter and 65 mm (2.6 in) long (18650 form-factor); this type of lithium-ion cell is also found in most laptop computer batteries. The pack is designed to prevent catastrophic cell failures from propagating to adjacent cells, even when the cooling system is off. Coolant is pumped continuously through the ESS both when the car is running and when the car is turned off if the pack retains more than a 90% charge. The coolant pump draws 146 watts. A full recharge of the battery system requires 3½ hours using the High Power Connector which supplies 70 amp, 240 volt electricity; in practice, recharge cycles usually start from a partially charged state and require less time. A fully charged ESS stores approximately 53 kWh of electrical energy at a nominal 375 volts and weighs 992 lb (450 kg). Tesla Motors stated in February 2009 that the current replacement cost of the ESS is slightly under USD$36,000, with an expected life span of 7 years/100,000 mi (160,000 km), and began offering owners an option to pre-purchase a battery replacement for USD$12,000 today with the replacement to be delivered after seven years. The ESS is expected to retain 70% capacity after 5 years and 50,000 miles (80,000 km) of driving (10,000 miles (16,000 km) driven each year). Tesla Motors provides a 3 year/36,000 mile warranty on the Roadster with an optional 4 year/50,000 mile extended warranty available at an "additional cost" (2008 Roadster buyers received the 4/50 extension at no cost while later purchasers need to pay). A non-ESS warranty extension is available for USD$5,000 and adds another 3/36 to the coverage of components, excluding the ESS, for a total of 6 years/72,000 mi (120,000 km).

Tesla Motors announced plans to sell the battery system to TH!NK and possibly others through its Tesla Energy Group division. The TH!NK plans were put on hold by interim CEO Michael Marks in September, 2007.

## Energy efficiency

Evolution of the Roadster's plug-to-wheel efficiency (smaller values indicate better efficiency).

In June, 2006, Tesla Motors reported the Roadster's battery-to-wheel efficiency as 110 W·h/km (17.7 kW·h/100 mi) on an unspecified driving cycle (either a constant 60 mph (97 km/h) or SAE J1634 test) and stated a charging efficiency of 86% for an overall plug-to-wheel efficiency of 128 W·h/km (20.5 kW·h/100 mi).

In March 2007, Tesla Motors reported the Roadster's efficiency on the EPA highway cycle as "135 mpg [U.S.] equivalent, per the conversion rate used by the EPA" or 133 W·h/km (21.5 kW·h/100 mi) battery-to-wheel and 155 W·h/km (24.9 kW·h/100 mi) plug-to-wheel.

In August, 2007, Tesla Motors' dynamometer testing of a Validation Prototype on the EPA combined cycle yielded a range of 221 mi (356 km) using 149 W·h/km (23.9 kW·h/100 mi) battery-to-wheel and 209 Wh/km (33.6 kW·h/100 mi) plug-to-wheel.

In February, 2008, Tesla Motors reported improved plug-to-wheel efficiency after testing a Validation Prototype car at an EPA-certified location. Those tests yielded a range of 220 mi (354 km) and a plug-to-wheel efficiency of 256 mpgge, or 199 W·h/km (32.1 kW·h/100 mi).

In August, 2008, Tesla Motors reported on testing with the new, single-speed gearbox and upgraded electronics of Powertrain 1.5 which yielded an EPA range of 244 mi (393 km) and an EPA combined cycle, plug-to-wheel efficiency of 174 W·h/km, 630 kJ/km (28 kW·h/100 mi).

The Roadster's motor efficiency, battery-to-wheel, is 92% on average and 85% at peak power. For comparison, internal combustion engines have a tank-to-wheel efficiency of about 15%.

### Petroleum-equivalent efficiency

The Roadster does not actually use gasoline; therefore, petroleum-equivalent efficiency (mpg, l/100 km) cannot be measured directly but instead is calculated using one of several different methods:

A number comparable to the typical Monroney sticker's "pump-to-wheel" fuel efficiency can be calculated based on regulations from the DOE and its energy content for a U.S. gallon of gasoline of 33,705 W·hgal (also called the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of gasoline):

$\frac{33705\,\frac{\mathrm{W \cdot h}}{\mathrm{gal_{ge}}}} {135\,\frac{\mathrm{W \cdot h}}{\mathrm{km}} \times \frac{1.6\, \mathrm{km}}{\mathrm{mi}}} \times 77.6% {\mathrm{_{charging\ eff.}}}= 120 \,\mathrm{mpg_{ge}} = 1.95 \frac{\mathrm{L_{ge}}}{100\, \mathrm{km}}$

For CAFE regulatory purposes, the DOE's full petroleum-equivalency equation combines the primary energy efficiencies of the USA electric grid and the well-to-pump path with a "fuel content factor" that quantifies the value of conservation, scarcity of fuels, and energy security in the USA. This combination yields a factor of 82,049 W·hgal in the above equation and a regulatory fuel efficiency of 293 mpggeCAFE.

Recharging with electricity from the average USA grid, the factor changes to 12,307 W·hgalUS to remove the "fuel content factor" = 10.15 and the above equation yields a full-cycle energy-equivalency of 44.0 mpgge full-cycle. For full-cycle comparisons, the sticker or "pump-to-wheel" value from a gasoline-fueled vehicle must be multiplied by the fuel's "well-to-pump" efficiency; the DOE regulation specifies a "well-to-pump" efficiency of 83% for gasoline. The Prius' sticker 46 miles per US gallon (5.1 L/100 km; 55 mpg-imp), for example, converts to a full-cycle energy-equivalent of 38.2 mpgfull-cycle.

Recharging with electricity generated by newer, 58% efficiency CCGT power plants, changes the factor to 21,763 W·hgal in the above equation and yields a fuel efficiency of 77.7 mpgge.

Recharging with non-fossil fuel electricity sources such as hydroelectric, solar power, wind or nuclear, the petroleum equivalent efficiency can be even higher as fossil fuel is not directly used in refueling.

Monetary cost offers another way to find an equivalent fuel efficiency. Tesla Motors reports an energy cost of approximately US$0.01/mile using PG&E's E-9 night-time incentive charging. Comparison with a gasoline price of US$3.00/ U.S. gallon, for instance, results in an equivalent of 300 mpgge using E-9 or 100 mpgge using retail pricing.

## Reviews

Tesla Roadster reviews can be grouped in two main categories: reviews on cars in serial production (model year 2008-2010) and older reviews of "validation prototypes," typically from 2006–2008, before Tesla began serial production and customer deliveries.

In the March 2010 print edition of British enthusiast magazine EVO (p. 120), editor Richard Meaden was the first to review the all-new right-hand-drive version of the Roadster. He said the car had "serious, instantaneous muscle." "With so much torque from literally no revs the acceleration punch is wholly alien. Away from traffic lights you'd murder anything, be it a 911 Turbo, GT-R or 599, simply because while they have to mess about with balancing revs and clutch, or fiddle with launch controls and invalid warranties, all you have to do is floor the throttle and wave goodbye."

In December 2009, Wall Street Journal editor Joseph White conducted an extended test-drive and determined that "you can have enormous fun within the legal speed limit as you whoosh around unsuspecting Camry drivers, zapping from 40 to 60 miles per hour in two seconds while the startled victims eat your electric dust." White, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, praised the car's environmental efficiency but said consumer demand reflected not the environmental attributes of the car but its performance. "The Tesla turns the frugal environmentalist aesthetic on its head. Sure, it doesn't burn petroleum, and if plugged into a wind turbine or a nuclear plant, it would be a very low-carbon machine. But anyone who buys one will get the most satisfaction from smoking someone's doors off. The Tesla's message is that "green" technology can appeal to the id, not just the superego."

In December 2009, MotorTrend was the first to independently confirm the Roadster Sport's reported 0-60 mph time of 3.7 seconds. (MotorTrend recorded 0-60 mph of 3.70 seconds; it recorded a quarter-mile test at 12.6 sec @ 102.6 mph.) Engineering Editor Kim Reynolds called the acceleration "breathtaking" and said the car confirms "Tesla as an actual car company. ...Tesla is the first maker to crack the EV legitimacy barrier in a century."

In November 2009, Automobile Magazine West Coast editor Jason Cammisa spent a week driving a production Tesla Roadster. Cammisa was immediately impressed with the acceleration, saying the car "explodes off the line, pulling like a small jet plane. ... It's like driving a Lamborghini with a big V-12 revved over 6000 rpm at all times, waiting to pounce - without the noise, vibration, or misdemeanor arrest for disturbing the peace." He also took the car to Infineon Raceway in Sonoma, California, and praised the car for its robustness, saying the Roadster "wins the Coolest Car I've Ever Driven award. Why? Despite the flat-out sprints, the drag racing, the donuts, the top-speed runs, and dicing through traffic like there's a jet pack strapped to the trunk, Pacific Gas and Electric - which generated power for the Tesla - released into the atmosphere the same amount of carbon dioxide as would a gasoline-powered car getting 99 mpg. And the Roadster didn't break. It didn't smoke, lock up, freeze, or experience flux-capacitor failure. Over the past ten decades, no company has been able to reinvent the car - not General Motors with the EV1, not Toyota with the Prius. And now, a bunch of dudes from Silicon Valley have created an electric car that really works - as both an environmental fix and a speed fix."

In May 2009, Car and Driver technical editor Aaron Robinson wrote a review based on the first extended test-drive of a production Tesla Roadster. Robinson had the car for nearly a week at his home. He called the Roadster "the ultimate in plug and play" and "a small carbon footprint in carbon fiber." "Always leave space in your life for objects that bring out your inner child," he wrote.

In February 2009, automotive critic Dan Neil of the Los Angeles Times called the production Tesla Roadster "a superb piece of machinery: stiff, well sorted, highly focused, dead-sexy and eerily quick." Neil said he had the car for 24 hours but "caned it like the Taliban caned Gillette salesmen and it never even blinked."

In February 2009, Road and Track tested another production vehicle and conducted the first independently verified metered testing of the Roadster. Engineering editor Dennis Simanitis said the testing confirmed what he called "extravagant claims", that the Roadster had a 4.0 s 0-60 mph acceleration and a 200-mile (320 km) range. They said the Roadster felt like "an over-ballasted Lotus Elise", but the weight was well-distributed, so the car remained responsive. "Fit and finish of our Tesla were exemplary", which Road and Track thought fit the target market. Overall, they considered it a "delight" to drive. Testing a pre-production car in early 2008, Road and Track said "The Tesla feels composed and competent at speed with great turn-in and transitioning response", though they recommended against it as a "primary grocery-getter".

In January 2009, automotive critic Warren Brown of the Washington Post called the production Roadster "a head-turner, jaw-dropper. It is sexy as all get-out." He described the feeling behind the wheel as, "Wheeeeeee! Drive a Tesla, even if you have to fly to Tesla's Menlo Park, Calif., headquarters, to get your hands on one for a day. ... If this is the future of the automobile, I want it."

In the fall of 2008, Top Gear's Jeremy Clarkson reviewed two production Roadsters with the v1.5 transmission and described the driving experience with the exclamations "God almighty!", "Wave goodbye to the world of dial-up, and say hello to the world of broadband motoring!" and "This car is Biblically quick!" when comparing the acceleration versus a Lotus Elise. Clarkson also noted, however, that the handling of the car was not as sharp as that of the Lotus Elise: "through the corners things are less rosy." The Stig recorded a time of 1:27.2 on a moist track, faster than a Nissan 370Z on a dry track but slower than a Porsche 911 C2S also on a damp track, and also slower than the Lotus Exige, Exige S and Evora. The segment also showed the car's batteries running flat after 55 miles (89 km), saying that the recharge would take 16 hours and also that the car then broke down. Tesla Motors' spokesperson responded with statements in blogs and to mainstream news organizations that the cars provided to Top Gear never had less than 20% charge and never experienced brake failure. In addition, neither car provided to Top Gear needed to be pushed off the track at any point. Finally, although Clarkson showed a limp windmill and complained that it would take countless hours to refuel the car using such a source of electricity, the car can be charged from a 240V outlet in as little as 3.5 hours. After numerous blogs and several large news organizations began following the controversy, the BBC issued a statement saying "the tested Tesla was filmed being pushed into the shed in order to show what would happen if the Roadster had run out of charge. Top Gear stands by the findings in this film and is content that it offers a fair representation of the Tesla's performance on the day it was tested," without addressing the other misrepresentations that Tesla highlighted to the media. After several weeks of increasing pressure and inquiries from the BBC, Clarkson wrote a blog for The Times of London, acknowledging that "that the film we had shot was a bit of a mess." In the months that followed Clarkson's acknowledgment, the original episode—including the misstatements—reran on BBC America and elsewhere without any editing, though the BBC is still looking into Top Gear's journalism standards, according to British media reports.

In a review of a Roadster prototype before the cars were in serial production, Motor Trend gave a generally favorable review in March 2008, stating that, it was "undeniably, unbelievably efficient" and would be "profoundly humbling to just about any rumbling Ferrari or Porsche that makes the mistake of pulling up next to a silent, 105-mpg Tesla Roadster at a stoplight."; however, they detected a "nasty drive-train buck" during the test drive of an early Roadster with the older, two-speed transmission.

In a July 8, 2007 review of a prototype Roadster, Jay Leno wrote, "If you like sports cars and you want to be green, this is the only way to go. The Tesla is a car that you can live with, drive and enjoy as a sports car. I had a brief drive in the car and it was quite impressive. This is an electric car that is fun to drive."

In a November 27, 2006, review of a prototype Roadster in Slate, Paul Boutin wrote, "A week ago, I went for a spin in the fastest, most fun car I've ever ridden in—and that includes the Aston Martin I tried to buy once. I was so excited, in fact, that I decided to take a few days to calm down before writing about it. Well, my waiting period is over, I'm thinking rationally, and I'm still unbelievably stoked about the Tesla."